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Department of Horticulture

Undergraduate Courses

HSC-101: Fundamentals of Horticulture

[Compulsory], [2 Credits], [3rd semester]

Introduction to horticulture; Horticulture plant classification and their structure; Growth and development of higher plants; Differences in growth of dicots and monocots; Phases of growth; Vegetative-Reproductive balance; Fundamentals of plant processes: Photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, translocation; Relationship of photosynthesis and transpiration to growth and yield of plants; Relationship between transpiration and photosynthesis; The vegetative-reproductive balance and the environment; The limiting factor and controlling the environment: Water supply, Soil, Temperature, Light, Nutrients as the limiting factors.

HSC-103: Introduction to Tropical Horticulture

[Selective], [2 Credits], [4th semester]

Structure of economically important parts of horticultural plants; Physical control of growth and development; Training, pruning, vernalization, flower or fruit protection, propping, girdling, other physical methods of flowering regulation; Chemical control of plant growth; Application of plant growth regulators; Plant propagation; Control of plant or organ size; Regulation of flowering and fruit set; Control of yellowing in leafy vegetables; Control of sprouting, latex stimulation; Aids to breeding; Weed control; Other uses.

HSC-102: Plant Propagation

[Compulsory/Selective], [3 Credits], [5th semester]

Plant propagation and life cycle of plants; Seed and seed propagation; Seed germination and dormancy; Usual types of seed development; Role of plant hormones in seed dormancy; Means of vegetative propagation; Reasons for using vegetative seed propagation; Variations in clones; Chimeras; Introduction to Plant Tissue Culture; Media preparation; Methods of sterilization; Aseptic techniques and explants preparation; Micro-propagation stages.

HSC-104: Vegetable Science

[Compulsory / Selective], [3 Credits], [6th semester]

Introduction; Definition of Vegetable; Factors affecting vegetable production; Heat unit systems for predicting plant development; Field management practices; Spacing and plant population; Mulching; Staking and training; Pruning; Fruit thinning; Irrigation.

HSC-105: Fruit Science

[Compulsory / Selective], [3 Credits], [6th semester]

Botany of Fruits: flower and fruit morphology, and fruit setting; Classification of fruits: horticultural, morphological climatic and photoperiodic classifications; Role of fruits in human society: nutrition, customs and culture, recreation and economy; Global and Myanmar fruit production: World fruit production statistics, Myanmar’s leading fruits production and consumption; Ecological requirements for orchard establishment: Soil and climatic factors; Orchard management: planting systems, making planting hole and planting, pruning and training systems for young trees.

HSC-106: Floriculture

[Compulsory / Selective], [3 Credits], [7th semester]

Introduction to floriculture: Scope and importance, History, Aesthetic value and career opportunities; Floricultural production and management: Floral control mechanisms; Types of flower production; Identification on orchid morphology; Value addition in floriculture: Floral arrangement, flower drying and dying; Production technology of commercial cut flowers: Factors affecting quality of cut flowers, preharvest growth factors, environmental management, cultural management, harvest factors and postharvest factors; Role of hormones in floricultural crops production; Commercial cut flowers production: Rose, Gladiolus and Chrysanthemum.

HSC-107: Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops

[Compulsory / Selective], [3 Credits], [7th semester]

Introduction to Postharvest Horticulture; Definition and Importance; Preharvest Modifiers of Crops’ Quality: Genetic factors, Climatic factors, Production practices, Harvesting; Harvest Maturity: Maturity indices, Harvest system, Harvest time; Chemical Composition: Water, Carbohydrates, Organic acid, Protein, Lipid, Plant pigment, Aromatic compounds, Phenolics, Latex, Vitamins; Physiological processes in harvested produce: Respiration, Transpiration, Ethylene production, Postharvest handling system of some important horticultural crops.

HSC-108: Nursery Management and Production

[Compulsory / Selective], [3 Credits], [8th semester]

Definition of Plant Nursery; Advantages and specific importance of plant nursery; Role of nurseries in Horticulture Development; Types of nursery; Physical and financial resources for nursery; Site selection; Nutrition and protection management in the plant nursery; Plant propagation; Nursery Economics.

HSC-109: Protected Horticulture

[Compulsory / Selective], [3 Credits], [8th semester]

Introduction to protected horticulture; Prospects and constraints of protected horticultural crop production; Role of protected cultivation in horticultural crops; Requirement for protected cultivation; Types and construction of protected horticulture; Kind of covering materials and their utilization; Environmental control system for protected cultivation: Good Agricultural Practices for protected horticulture; Water supply and crop protection; Protected business and future prospect of protected cultivation.

HSC-110: Horticultural Seed Production

[Compulsory], [3 Credits], [9th semester]

Seed and its importance; Goodness of seed: Genetic point of view, Physiological point of view, Phytopathological and entomological point of view; Objectives and methods of seed production; Seed Certification; Ecology for seed production: Light and temperature, Sun, rain and wind, Soil, Insects; Agronomic factors for seed production: Protection, Isolation, Roguing, Weed control, Nutrition and Irrigation, Harvesting; Seed production of radish; Methods of seed treatment.

HSC-111: Landscape Ecology and Design

[Compulsory], [3 Credits], [9th semester]

Natural and man-made landscape and role of landscape ecosystem in human society; Existing Landscape Ecosystem: types of existing, flora-fauna-topography impacts on ecosystems, gardens and parks in ecosystem conservation; Shade Trees in Landscaping: types of shade trees, pros and cons of shade trees, and planting shade trees in landscaping; Wildlife in Landscape: types of wildlife, wildlife community and needs to live, interdependence between mankind and wildlife, and means of wildlife conservation in landscape ecosystem; Landscape Ecosystem is Learning Environment for Human beings: sources of learning, learning conditions in outdoor, learning opportunities for children, and living environment for participatory learning; Landscape Design Elements: line, form, color, texture and pattern as basic design components; Landscape Design Principles: balance, proportion, scale, accent, unity, simplicity vs. complexity and transition for profound design; Outdoor learning: observation on residential and public landscapes, and criticized discussion on it.

HSC-112: Organic and Sustainable Horticulture

[Compulsory], [3 Credits], [9th semester]

What is Organic Agriculture?: The ills of green revolution, What is Organic Agriculture/ Farming?, Demand for organic foods, Advantages of organic farming, Components of organic farming; What is Sustainable Agriculture/ Horticulture?: Toward a more sustainable horticulture, Some desirable practices, Changes needed beyond the farm gate: Sustaining Soil, Water and the Environment: Sustainable management of soil resources, Chemical and organic fertilizers, Fertilizers and sustainability, Cover crop, Rotations, Organic amendments, Reduced tillage, Sustainable water management; Overview of Precision Farming: Basic factors underlying data collection, Data collection, Global Positioning Satellites, Geographic Information Systems, Variable-rate Technology, Sustainability and precision farming; Sustainable Approaches to Plant Protection: Preventing pests and diseases, Reactive practices to control insects and diseases.

M.Agr.Sc Degree Courses


Natural occurrence, biochemical and physiological effects, mode of action of growth regulators. Their application in rooting, flowering, inhibition, forcing flower and fruit thinning and seedless – fruit production.

Practical: Preparation of different forms of plant growth regulators, Practising in the uses of plant growth regulators in rooting, dormancy breaking and flowering.


Root-stock-scion relationship. Incompatibility. Dwarfism. Micropropagation technique. Sterile and meristem culture of orchids. Rapid multiplication methods in some plants and virus-free clones production.

Practical: Practice in tissue culture technique, sterile culture and meristem culture of orchids.


Flower and fruit morphology: Types of flowers and inflorescences in fruit crops, External and internal features of fruits; Tree forms in determination of floral induction: Size, shape and composition of crown, Stem/ Trunk development for the passage of sap-flow, Crown ideotypes; Floral organ development in tree fruits: Phase changes from vegetative to reproductive organs, Development of basic floral organs, ABC model for floral organ development, C:N balance in flowering, GAs in flowering control; Pollination in fruit crops: Pollen grain adhesion and germination, pollination constraints, self-incompatibility of flowers, effective pollination period for fruit set.

Practical: Morphological characterization of fruits, pruning for crown-form in tree fruits, floral organ development, fruit growth stages. 


Key factors in vegetable production, General production practices, Constraints in commercial vegetable production and possible remedies, Classification of vegetables, Types of vegetable farming, Year round production of some important vegatables and problems, Protected horticulture, Precision horticulture.

Practical: Practices in seed bed preparation, irrigation and planting systems, calculation of growing degree days, Visit to commercial vegetable farms.


Commercial production of foliage, bulbous, pot plants, roses, chrysanthemums, Chinese asters, jasmines and gerberas. Delaying and flower forcing.

Practical: Identification of commercial varieties, cultural practices of above mentioned flowers.


Nature of flower induction, influence of growing technique, growth habit, inflorescence structure and criteria of flowering response, vernalization and devernalization, photoperiod response, endogenous rythms, effects of growth substances and retardants.

Practical: Laboratory studies on the effects of photoperild, temperature and plant growth substances on flower bud initiation and stuges.


Distribution and ecology, economic important of orchids, propagation and cultural practices. Seedling and their care. Classification and flowering physiology of some important genera Flower structure and mechanics of hybridization Production and naming of hybrids.

Practical: Collection and identification of genera and species cultural practices, terile and meristem culture, seed production.


Physiological changes in ripening of fruits. Delayed ripening and forced ripening. Problems in storing fresh horticultural products. Lengthening shelf-life of fruits, flowers and vegetables. Post-harvest processing of fruits, flowers and vegetables. Preservation of horticultural products.


Scope and methods of crop improvement. Markets standards and meeting them. Cultural aspects of crop improvement. Yield and quality improvements. Improvement by breeding.


Critical review and discussion on the specific area of horticulture, supposedly leading to the Master's Research.

HSC-681 SEMINAR  Credit-l

Presentation of literature related to course content. Required by all post-graduate students in Horticulture to discuss current literature and horticultural development (Compulsory credit).

HSC-691 Research paper (international/domestic) Credit-1


Academic and applied research on the improvement of yield, quality, variety, etc. of horticultural crops.

Ph.D. Degree Courses

HSC-711 Plant Tissue Culture, Development and Biotechnology   3 credits

Introduction, PGRs and their use in micropropagation, molecular approaches to study of plant development, molecular tools for studying plant genetic diversity, commercial laboratory production, developing a molecular understanding of In Vitro and in planta shoot organogenesis, propagation from nonmeristematic tissue, nonzygoticembryogenesis, developmental and molecular aspects of nonzygotic (somatic) embryogenesis, isolation, culture and fusion of protoplasts, haploid culture, genetic engineering technologies, transformation of plant meristems, genetically modified controversies, cryopreservation of plant cells, tissues and organs, plant biotechnology for the production of natural products, variation in tissue culture, intellectual property protection for plants.

Practical: Students need to do some laboratory works related to theory.

HSC-712 Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops   3 credits

Postharvest biology and technology of horticultural crops. Effects of preharvest factors and commodity types (Type of organ, Nature of fruit wall, Nature of dermal system) on postharvest quality of horticultural crops, postharvest handling systems, physiological changes of harvested crops (transpiration, respiration, and ethylene production), postharvest techniques (physical treatment, chemical treatment, natural compound, and packaging) to maintain the quality attributes, nutritional and functional compositions. Suitable conditions or environments to extend the storage life. Ways to reduce the losses of crops.

Practical: Study on appearance, color, texture of horticultural crops. Assessments on some nutritional contents of fruits and vegetables. Presentation on review paper and written assignment.

HSC-713 Ecophysiology of Horticultural Crops   3 credits

Introduction, key environmental influences on plant growth and development. Main functional responses of plants influenced by environmental variability. The physiology of crops in relation to the environment: Energy and Carbon, Light, Temperature, Water and Interactions between organisms. The radiation environment, effects of spectral distribution of radiation on plants, effects of irradiance on plants, Identification of stress, The temperature relations of plants, Plant adaptations and resistance to low temperature, Plant adaptations and resistance to high temperature, Competition between organisms, Predation and parasitism, Allelopathy. Techniques to measure the physiological responses of plants in order to detect stress.

Practical: Students are required to grow some plants in order to study the morphological and physiological changes (mainly photosynthesis) of plants in response to stress. Giving reports both written and oral are compulsory for all students.

HSC-721 Advanced Seed Physiology of Horticultural Crops   3 credits

Introduction: Definition and importance of seeds and seed physiology, Seed Development: Structure, reserve food and hormonal regulation, Seed Germination: Water uptake, food mobilization, radicle expansion, seedling development, Biochemistry of Seeds: Respiration, protein synthesis and DNA synthesis, Seed Dormancy: Biological significance,

control mechanism and release from dormancy, Seed Deterioration: Physiological changes, biochemical changes and influencing factors, Seed Enhancement: Priming technology, seed coating techniques and chemical treatments, Seed Vigor

Practical: Accelerated aging, cold test, Tetrazolium test, electrical conductivity test.

HSC-723 Systems Modelling  3 credits

Preface: Systems in our life – and in crop production, Simple descriptive growth models, Light and growth, Principles of systems theory, Models of transport and transformation, Simple mechanistic growth models, Structural dynamics of plant canopies, Growth processes, Static models, Dynamic models, Crop ecological models, Introduction into a physiological crop model, Introduction into a genomic crop model, Modelling methods, Practical: Works on modelling using excel, model maker and/or vensimsoftwares, Modelling projects of students.

Several Open Books

Contact Us


P.O.Box 150501, Yezin,

Zayarthiri Township,

Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar.


Fax:      +95 67 341 6517

Phone: +95 67 341 6513



Office: +95 67 341 6688

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