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Department of Soil and Water Science

Undergraduate Courses

CHE-101: Inorganic Chemistry

[Compulsory], [2 Credits], [1stsemester]

Inorganic Chemistry: Periodic Table, Metals and their Compounds; Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, Aluminium, Silicon, Non-metals and their Compounds; Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Nuclear Chemistry; Radiations, Equations for Nuclear Reactions, Stability of the Nucleus, Isotopes, Isobars and Isotones, Uses of Radioisotopes,

Organic Chemistry:Aliphatic Hydrocarbons, Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Important functional groups in organic compounds, Alcohols, Ethers, Aldehydes, Ketones

CHE-102: Physical Chemistry

[Compulsory], [2 Credits], [2nd semester]

Physical Chemistry:General characteristic of gases; Parameters of a gas, Gas Law, The ideal-gas equation, Kinetic molecular theory of gases, Explanation of deviations , van der Waals equation, Solution, Solubility, Determination of solubility, Solubility Curves, Liquids, Colloids, Adsorption, Types of adsorption

Organic Chemistry: Important functional groups in organic compounds 1.Important functional groups in Carboxylic acids , Esters, Amines, Amides Aromatic Compounds; Benzenes and arenes, Phenols, Benzoic acids

CHE-103: Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry

[Selected], [1 Credits], [2nd semester]

Biochemistry: Carbohydrate; Occurrence and importance, Classification of carbohydrates, Structure of monosaccharide, Biologically important monosaccharide, Derivatives of monosaccharides, Disaccharide, polysaccharide, Lipids; Occurrence and importance, Classification of fatty acids, Physical and chemical properties, Amino acids and proteins; Occurrence and importance, Classification of amino acids, Poperties of Amino acids

SWS-101: Introductory Soil Science

[Compulsory], [2 Credits], [3rd semester]

Introduction to the soil, Soil Texture, Soil Structure & Macropores, Available Water Capacity, Organic Matter, Soil Biodiversity, Compaction, Soil pH, Infiltration, Hydrophobicity, Aggregate Stability, Indicators for Soil Quality Evaluation and Soil Formation.

SWS-102: Soil Physics

[Selected], [2 Credits], [4th semester]

Importance of Soil Physics, Basic Definitions and Concepts, Soil Colour, Soil Air and Aeration, Soil Temperature and Heat Flow, Soil Water Potential, Hydraulic Conductivity and Water Transport.

SWS-103: Soil Chemistry

[Compulsory/Selected], [3 Credits], [5thsemester]

The chemistry composition of soil, Soil minerals, ionic solids, primary silicates, clay miners, metal oxides, oxyhydroxides and hydroxides, and carbonates and sulfates, Soil humus, The soil solution, Mineral Stability and Weathering, Oxidation-reduction reactions, flooded soils, redox reactions, the redox ladder, exploring the redox ladder, pE-pH diagrams, Soil particle surface charge, Exchangeable ions, Colloidal phenomena, Soil acidity, proton cycling, acid-neutralizing capacity, aluminum geochemistry, redox effects, neutralizing soil acidity, Soil salinity, saline soil solutions, cation exchange and colloidal phenomena, mineral weathering, boron chemistry, irrigation water quality.

SWS-104: Mineral Nutrition

[Compulsory/Selected], [3 Credits], [6thsemester]

An Introduction to Plant Nutrition, Nutrients in Soils and Uptake by Plants,  Nutrients Their Functions, Mobility in Plants and Deficiency/ Toxicity Symptoms, How to Identify  Plant Nutrient Deficiency in Field Conditions, Nutrient Management on Rice, Legumes and Natural Ecosystems, Exercises.

SWS-105: Soil Fertility Management and Evaluation

[Compulsory/Selected], [3 Credits], [6thsemester]

Nutrients in soil; Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Calcium, Magnesium, Micronutrients, Soil Nutrient sources, Available nutrients in Soils, Dynamics of plant nutrients in soils, Fundamentals of Nutrient Management, Nutrients, Water Use and Other Interactions, Economics of Plant-Nutrient use and Agricultural Productivity. Major Concepts and Soil Fertility, Soil Fertility Evaluation Techniques Based on Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms, Biological Tests, Plant Analysis and Soil Testing, Interpretations of the Soil and Plant Analysis Results, Degradation and Improvement of Soil Fertility, Role of Soil Organic Matter in Soil Fertility, Cropping System, Farmyard Manure, Green Manure.

SWS-106: Fertilizer and Manure

[Compulsory/Selected], [3 Credits], [7thsemester]

Terminology and Definitions, General aspects, Classification, Sources of plant Nutrients and Soil Amendments (Inorganic, Organic and Biofertilizer) Optimizing Plant Nutrition, Guidelines for nutrient Management through fertilizers.

SWS-107: Water Management

[Compulsory/Selected], [3 Credits], [7thsemester]

Estimating Water Requirement of Crop, Influence of Climate on Crop Water Needs (ETo), Influence of Crop Type on Crop Water Needs (Kc), Classification of Irrigation Methods, Soil Water Measurement, Scheduling Irrigation

SWS-108: Fertility Management of Paddy Soil

[Compulsory/Selected], [3 Credits], [8thsemester]

Characteristic of Paddy Soils, Physico-Chemical Changes in Submerged Rice Soils, Oxidation-Reduction Potential, Soil Reduction, Effect of Soil Reduction on Soil Fertility, pH Shift in Submerged Soils, Electrical Conductivity Changes in Submerged Rice Soils, Nitrogen Transformation in Paddy Soils, Phosphorus Transformation under Submerged Condition, Potassium Transformation in Flooded Soils, Sulphur Transformation in Flooded Soils, Trace Elements, Alternate Wetting and Drying of Puddled Soil, Effect of Growing Rice with Less Water, Environmental Concerns with Paddy Soil.

SWS-109: Advanced Crop Water Management

[Compulsory/Selected], [3 Credits], [8thsemester]

This Course Covers the Understanding of Crop Water Consumption and Introduction to Evapotranspiration Including Processes, Factors Affecting, Determination and Considerations in Calculation, Water Saving Techniques and Crop Yields Respond to Water Especially for Rice, Corn, Sugarcane, Groundnut, Soybean, Vegetables, Rubber and Cotton.

SWS-110: Soil Conservation

[Compulsory], [3 Credits], [9th semester]

Man and Soil Erosion, The mechanics of Erosion, The Physics of Rainfall, The Erosivity of Rainfall, The Erodibilty of Soil, The Estimation of Surface Runoff, Estimating Soil Loss, Erosion Research Methods, Land Use and Soil Conservation, Physical Erosion Control Measures, Erosion Control through Land Husbandry, Gully Erosion, Erosion Control on Non-arable Land, Policies and Implementation.

SWS-111: Environmental Soil Science

[Compulsory], [3 Credits], [9th semester]

Review of basic concepts of soil components, Soil degradation and problem soils, Land application of wastes and pollution, Detoxification of wastes, Soil and water quality, Soil Survey and Land capability classification.

SWS-112: Soil Microorganisms for Sustainable Agriculture

[Compulsory], [3 Credits], [9th semester]

Definition, modern theories and concepts of sustainable agriculture, Microorganisms in the soil-plant ecosystems, Soil microorganisms and the Decomposition of organic matter, Effects of microorganisms on plant growth, Effects of microbes on soil structure and Effective microorganisms.

M.Agr.Sc Degree Courses


Chemical composition of soils; the sources of plant nutrients in the soil; chemical properties of soils and available nutrients; soil fixation of plant nutrients. Mechanism of ion absorption by plant roots, translocation, mode of plant entry. Nutrient interaction. Clay organic matter complexes and their significance in plant nutrition. Q/I relationships in plant nutrient uptake.

Practical: Estimation of important chemical elements in soils. Determination of available nutrients by different methods.


Nature of inorganic and organic soil colloidal fraction. Structure and properties of clay minerals. Electric double-layer structure and stability of clay suspensions. Deflocculation and flocculation of clay suspensions. Caution and anion exchange phenomena.

Practical: Effect of electrolytes on the stability of hydrophobic soils. Measurement of cation exchange capacity; ion activity and adsorption.


Historical background of micronutrient study; microelements in plant nutrition their functions; deficiency symptoms, forms and contents in plants; distribution in profiles; transformations in soils; evaluation of soil for the supply of trace elements corrective measures; microelements in fertilizers.

Practical: Analysis of available microelements in soils and total content in plants by both conventional and modern (using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, etc.) methods.


A laboratory course of the analytical techniques for the determination of the elemental composition of soils and plants. Principles and methods of Flame photometry, Absorption spectrophotometry; Atomic absorption spectrophotometry.


Chemical methods for assessing soil fertility. Methods for correlation of soil test analyses with plant response data. Principles and practices of plant analysis. Diagnostic criteria for plant and soils.

Practical: Field Fertilizer experiments for soil correlation of soil tests with plant response. Field fertilizer experiments for the determination of critical concentration and sale levels of nutrients. Analysis of soil and plant samples from field experiments.


Historical background of soil organic matter study; composition of soil organic matter; nature of humus substances; chemistry of humus formation; reaction of humus with metals; clay minerals and organic compounds; effect of organic matter on soil formation, soil properties and plant growth; changes of organic matter under different soil management.

Practical: Methods of investigating soil organic matter, Extraction, Purification, ractionation, Characterisation and biosynthesis of humic substances.


Characteristic of submerged soils, electrochemical changes in submerged soils, chemical transformations and mineral equilibrium in submerged soils.

Practical: Chemical analysis of submerged soils; analysis of solutions of floodedsoil, measurement of chemical kinetics of flooded soils.


Fertilizer industry in Myanmar and abroad. Raw materials for fertilizer industry. Flow reactions, equipment and manufacture of different types of fertilizers. Mixedfertilizers, liquid and suspension forms. Newer fertilizers and their evaluation. Granulationand segregation. Handling and storage.


Irrigation waters, their quality and quantity, regional differences in composition of ground water and their significance. Effect of water quality on soils and plants. Salt balance of irrigated areas. Leaching and gypsum requirements of soils. Water quality criteria; use of poor quality irrigation water. Improvement of the quality of irrigation water.

Practical: Analysis of irrigation water samples; preparation of water of known SAR, REC and EC and their effect on the gypsum requirements.


Early systems developed in USSR, USA and Europe. Recent development in soil classification systems. The system of soils survey staff of the USDA; The soil classification system adopted in Myanmar.

Practical: Study of soil profiles developed in different geomorphic region of Myanmar. Procedures in soil surveying and mapping; soil survey of a small area and preparation of a soil map and writing a standard soil survey report.


Mechanics of erosion, physics of rainfall; erosibility of rainfall; erodibility of soil; principles of mechanical protection, estimation of surface run-off, design of mechanical protection works; universal soil loss equation, erosion control by crop management; gully erosion and control measures, wind erosion and its control.

Practical: Use of survey instruments; design and construction of storm water drains; channel terraces and grass waterways. Measurement of surface run-off and verification of mathematical models; measurement of soil erosion under different conditions and verification of the universal soil loss equation.


Plant water relationships mechanism of water supply to plant roots, nutrient stransport to plant; flow of water through soil plant water system environmental aspects of plant water relationships-energy balance, water balance; evapotranspiration; measurements of consumptive use of water; soil moisture and fertility interactions.

Practical: Computing water balance in the field, computing evapotranspiration.


Consolidation and compaction; bearing capacity of soil; shearing resistance of soil; permeability of soil; flow of ground water.

Practical: Compatibility; modules of rupture; measurements of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head; zero flux plane model.


Alkanes and cycle alkanes; alkanes and alkalienes; alkynes; polymer chemistry; aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and, phenols; stereochemistry, halogen compound, ester, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acid, acid halides; anhydrides, amides, and nitiles, amines. hetrocyclic compound. the chemistry of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins; enzymes; carbohydrates metabolism, lipid metabolism; protein metabolism; metabolism of nucleoproteins, nucleic acid and nucleotides, vitamins; hormones. alkaloids and drugs.

Practical: Preparations and identification of typical organic compounds. Qualitative and quantitative determination of biochemical compounds.


The first law of thermodynamics; the second law of thermodynamics, thermochemistry; chemical kinetics; the rate of chemical changes. experimental methods in kinetics; order of reactions, reaction mechanisms, first order, second order and third order rate equations, electrochemistry, conductance and ionic reactions; electrochemistry cells; atomic structure and radio activity, nuclear chemistry; photochemistry and radiation chemistry; colloids; absorption.

Practical: Volumetric analysis; gravimetric analysis and instrumental analysis. determination of the heat of combustion determination of the rate of the first and second order reactions; measurement of conductance of solution, conductimetric titrations; principles, theories and techniques of the use of flame photometer, spectrophotometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometer.


Review and discussion in current knowledge of selected topic.

AGC-681 SEMINAR  Credit-1

Presentation of literature related to course content. Required by all post-graduate students in agricultural Chemistry to discuss current literature and crop development (Compulsory credit).

AGC-691 Research paper  (international/domestic) Credit-1


Ph.D. Degree Courses

AGC-711  Soil Fertility  3 credits

Soil-Plant Relationships, Soil Acidity and Alkalinity, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Calcium, Magnesium, Micronutrients, Soil Fertility Evaluation, Fundamentals of Nutrient Management, Nutrients, Water use, and Other Interactions, Economics of Plant-Nutrient Use, Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Quality.

AGC-712  Soil Chemistry   3 credits

This course examines the chemical processes in soil and also is the study of chemical characteristics of soils. The contents of the course directly related to the issues of organic and inorganic contaminants and pollutants endangering environmental and human health. Topics include introduction to soil chemistry, characteristics of chemicals in soils, production and chemistry of Soil organic matter, chemistry of submerged soil, salt-affected soils, soil acidity.

AGC-713  Problem Soils and Their Management    3 credits

Common soil problem; Causes and impact of each problem soils; Groups of problem soil (Halomorphic soil, Acid sulphate soil, Acid soil, Calcareous soil, eroded soil, flooded soil, compacted soil, peat soil, polluted soil, heavy metal polluted soil, fluffy paddy soil); Reclamation and management of problem soils; Soil degradation by pesticides and organic containments; The problem soils in Myanmar and point out the solution to soil problems; Sources of soil pollution, direct and indirect effects on soil functions and environment and the risk assessments of soil pollution.

AGC-714  Soil Conservation   3 credits

Man and Soil Erosion, The mechanics of Erosion, The Physics of Rainfall, The Erosivity of Rainfall, The Erodibilty of Soil, The Estimation of Surface Runoff, Estimating Soil Loss, Erosion Research Methods, Land Use and Soil Conservation, Physical Erosion Control Measures, Erosion Control through Land Husbandry, Gully Erosion, Erosion Control on Non-arable Land, Policies and Implementation.

AGC-715 Plant Nutrition    3 credits

Mineral contents of plant material; Important physico-chemical properties of soil; factor relating to nutrient availability; Nutrient uptake and assimilation; Nutritional and plant growth and plant quality; Plant nutrients Functions, deficiency and toxicity symptoms; Diagnosing and correcting nutritional disorder; Nutritional requirement for crop production; The importance of beneficial elements, Elements with more toxic effects.

AGC-721 Chemistry of Submerged Soil  3 credits

Kinds of Submerged Soils, Characteristic of Submerged Soils, Electrochemical Changes in Submerged Soils, Chemical transformation in Submerged Soils, Mineral Equilibra in Submerged Soils, Perspectives for Chemistry of Submerged Soils Some aspects of the Chemistry of Rice Soils, Chemistry of Lowland Rice Soils and Nutrient Availability, Nitrogen Fractionation and its Mineralization in Rice Soils, Phosphorus Management for Submerged Rice Soils, Potassium Management for Submerged Rice Soils.

AGC-722 Fertilizer Technology  3 credits

Mineral Fertilizer, manure and biofertilizer; Need for improved Techniques; Development and manufacture of slow and controlled release fertilizers and nitrification and urease inhibitors; Production of compound fertilizer; Improving fertilizer efficiency as influenced by fertilizers and application methods; Fertilizer application with irrigation (Fertigation); Foliar fertilizer and fertilization; Combined fertilizer and pesticide application; Modern techniques fertilizer application; Future improvement in application techniques; Fertilizer use in relation to the environment; Organic fertilizers, Factors to be considered to produce and apply of commercial Organic fertilizers; Grouped of biofertilizer and their application

AGC-723 Chemistry of soil organic matter   3 credits

The course is oriented to the explanation about soil organic carbon dynamics, composition of soil organic matter, soil organic matter fractionation, nature and distribution of humus substances, chemistry of humus formation, reaction of humus with metals, diagnosis of humus, interactions of soil mineral colloids with organic substances compounds, effect of organic matter on soil formation, soil organic matter and crop management, changes of organic matter under different soil management.

AGC-724 Integrated water management   3 credits

Characteristics of surface and groundwater resources, soil water relationship, drainage and irrigation techniques, irrigation development and planning, land classification for irrigation, water for irrigation and its quality, crop water requirements and irrigation scheduling, measurement of irrigation water, water pollution from agricultural production, crop evapotranspiration, water stress on plant productivity, agricultural water use efficiency and productivity, soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, water saving techniques.

AGC-725 Soil and Water Pollution and Control   3 credits

Hydrologic cycle and water budgets, Types of water pollution, Sources of water pollution, Natural purification of rivers and impoundment, Strategies for water pollution control, Ground water pollution, Eutrophication, Sewage farming, Characteristics of waste water, Bio filters. Soil pollutants, parameters of soil analysis, Effect of soil pollution, Control of soil pollution.

Several Open Books

Contact Us


P.O.Box 150501, Yezin,

Zayarthiri Township,

Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar.


Fax:      +95 67 341 6517

Phone: +95 67 341 6513



Office: +95 67 341 6688

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